Government dating laws
The current legal infrastructure in the People's Republic of China was heavily influenced by Soviet Socialist law, which essentially inflates administrative law at the expense of private law rights.Due to rapid industrialisation, today China is undergoing a process of reform, at least in terms of economic, if not social and political, rights.Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined.Civil law (not to be confused with civil law jurisdictions above) deals with the resolution of lawsuits (disputes) between individuals or organizations.Latin legal maxims (called brocards) were compiled for guidance.In medieval England, royal courts developed a body of precedent which later became the common law.A Europe-wide Law Merchant was formed so that merchants could trade with common standards of practice rather than with the many splintered facets of local laws.The Law Merchant, a precursor to modern commercial law, emphasised the freedom to contract and alienability of property.
Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process.
In contrast to English common law, which consists of enormous tomes of case law, codes in small books are easy to export and easy for judges to apply.
However, today there are signs that civil and common law are converging.
By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements ("if … Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone.
Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; this became known as the Codex Hammurabi.
The small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class.